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Welcome to the Eighties! The transition from legacy media to digital technology is beginning, and within this strange decade of mixed medium comes the rise and fall of the audio cassette magazine.
Audio cassette magazines (or ‘tapezines’) were an experimental journalist platform used to promote a music niche generally not promoted by mainstream platforms. They combined songs, news and interviews with artists and sounded much like podcasts released today. The trend began around 1981 across America, Australia, and the UK. However, the cassettes never lasted longer than a couple of years, with only one audio magazine in Manhattan outlasting the market by ten years.
Each of the magazines focused on a particular music genre or geographical location producing music.
The founding cassette magazine, Fast Forward, focused on post-punk music based on the creators’ passion and knowledge of the Punk genre beginning in the ’70s. The tapezine was available worldwide for music lovers to learn about Australia’s post-punk music. The magazine gained attraction in America, particularly by Bruce Pavitt, the founder of Sub-Pop. Inspired by Fast Forward, Pavitt created cassette compilations to accompany his magazine, promoting undiscovered talent from Pacific Northwest.
On the other side of America, a new challenge against mainstream radio began. Tell Us cassette magazine was an art project documenting New York’s downtown music. The cassette spliced together spoken word, music, and performance pieces with a visual accompaniment. It favoured avant-garde and no wave music, experimenting with different genres of sound. Tell Us’ fluidity with sound and art gave the magazine a longer lease of life, lasting for ten years before the project ended in 1993.
Unlike America and Australia’s underground music promotion, UK’s SFX Cassette Magazine was inspired by MTV’s promotion of New Wave music. An experiment in music journalism created by Hugh Salmon and Max Bell, SFX was advertised as the first audio cassette magazine ever published. However, Fast Forward had defeated SFX to the punch a year earlier.
The benefit of producing cassette magazines was the freedom to experiment with editing spoken word with music. The manual splicing and combining of interviews with sound gave a new found freedom in promoting music compared to printed press.
Bruce Milne from Fast Forward explained that he wanted to create a medium for promoting new music not restricted by the number of adjectives in the English language.
“I’d spent a number of years writing about music and you definitely get to the point when you’re writing about music that this is ridiculous, I’m trying to describe something, and I’ve sort of run out of adjectives.” – Bruce Milne, One of the two founders of Fast Forward
Likewise, radio stations had restricting guidelines on what music was appropriate to play. This meant DJ’s had to discard other lesser-known musicians who did not fit the genre. The cassette magazine combines the two forms with the freedom to play songs not advertised in mainstream media.
Plus, cassette tapes were cheap to buy!
Fast Forward managed to buy their cassettes cheaply by recycling erased pre-recorded tapes and repackaging them. Similarly, Sub Pop’s cassette compilations were said to be worth making as long as they sold 200 copies. After completing three unique cassette compilation magazines, Sub Pop decided to use cassettes to supplement their printed magazine.
However, copyright laws and the creators’ limited access to music restricted tapezines production. SFX had to fight for their right to play 20 to 30 seconds of a song by persuading the Performing Rights Society that previewing music is an excellent way to sell music.
Likewise, Bruce Milne and Andrew Maine from Fast Forward used their radio show to find and access music to play on their cassette magazine. These mainly consisted of cassette or reel to reel demos sent in by independent musicians.
Both magazines struggled to avoid record labels paranoia around home taping destroying music. The creators of Fast Forward learnt a lot about copyright infringement and avoid playing music from large record labels. Meanwhile, before SFX even hit the shops, it was under criticism for using re-useable tapes because it might encourage home taping of music. Hugh Salmon disputed the criticism insisting that listeners would view the tape as a collectable.
Salmon was right to dispute the criticism. The success of SFX led to one of the most famous interviews with Paul McCartney that now sells for profit on eBay. The recorded conversation was the first time McCartney openly talked about the murder of John Lennon. However, SFX’s reign quickly ended after only 19 issues due to the high production costs. Most likely due to their focus on mainstream New Wave music.
Sadly, the novelty of tapezine quickly wore off as mainstream printed magazines began using cassettes to promote new music. NME created a collection of cassette compilation albums to accompany their magazine. Their most famous compilation album released in 1986 (simply named C68) had huge success. But, it marked the beginning of the end to mixtape culture and sharing independent music via cassette tapes.
At the same time, publishing music magazines on cassettes began to feel limited compared to the popularity of MTV. Cassette tapes poor audio quality caused interviews and music to be challenging to listen to. It had nothing on the visual captivation and audio clarity offered by music channels on TV.
Although MTV and copyright laws brought the downfall of the tapezine, these magazines have left a mark in music journalism. Today, Tape magazines are collectable items holding a slice of authentic music history from the ’80s.
A film franchise 28 years in the making; Jurassic Park has reigned success again-and-again with each sequel it makes. With the third instalment of Jurassic World coming this year, we reflect on how the original film captured the public’s attention and became the 5th most popular VHS tape of all time.
Steven Spielberg’s Jurassic Park (1993) is a culturally significant film in Hollywood for pioneering new visual effects and reflecting the changing political climate in America. In the opening weekend, Jurassic Park achieved a record-breaking $50 million box office sale. After a year of being played in the cinema, the film had obtained $916 million before being released on VHS. To know that their budget was only £96 million, you get an idea of the magnitude of this film’s achievement.
The success of its box office and VHS sales were driven by the film’s production, marketing, and commodification. Combine this with a family orientated storyline of a group working together to escape the monstrous danger surrounding them – and you’ve got yourself a Spielberg blockbuster.
However, before we can understand Jurassic Park’s success, we first need to delve into America’s politics during the cinematic release.
6 months before Jurassic Park’s release, Bill Clinton was welcomed in as the United States’ new President. Within the first month of his presidency, he had reversed the family planning restrictions prohibiting women from getting an abortion.
6 months after Jurassic Park’s release, the Republicans won most of the seats in Office. There became a focus in American politics to maintain traditional American ideals.
Since the Republicans had won most seats, Clinton signed a bill called the “Defence of Marriage Act”. This act was designed to “protect” the institution of marriage as a union of one man to one woman – the conservative, nuclear ideal—an ideal which was heavily focused on Jurassic Park’s storyline.
“…those stories that become consumable by a large popular audience provide a good guide to the more conservative cultural narratives of the present.” – Laura Briggs and Jodi I. Kelber-Kaye, “There Is No Unauthorized Breeding in Jurassic Park”: Gender and the Uses of Genetics.”
Science fiction films tend to show us a narrative different from the Western cultural norm. Moreover, they highlight the dangers of living in a world different from the political situation that we live in. In Jurassic Park, the dinosaurs represent the dangers and uncontrollable nature of experimenting with genetics.
The dinosaurs represent the anxiety around the science of controlled breeding. Through being created in the lab, they represent the mix of being technological and organic. In the film, the dinosaurs were designed by extracting the DNA from a mosquito’s blood found inside an amber stone. The visiting characters learn that they created all the dinosaurs as females to prevent the dinosaurs from breeding and control their test environment.
However, the scientists used frog DNA to fill the genetic make-up needed to clone the animals. Little did they know that the frog’s DNA they had chosen to use was of an ambisexual breed – meaning that they had the capability of changing gender to procreate. The famous words of Ian Malcolm ring true as the female dinosaurs find a way to evolve and represent the uncontrollable danger of meddling with genetics and controlling breeding.
Since Spielberg directed Jurassic Park, there had to be a family-friendly spin on an army of monstrous dinosaurs rampaging around an island. At the beginning of the film, the audience is introduced to Alan Grant and Ellie Sattler: a couple struggling with their differences over having children. Ellie being all for beginning a family, and Alan thoroughly against it. The couple’s arrival to the theme park brought new responsibilities as they (well, Alan) were landed with protecting the owner’s grandchildren from the danger of the dinosaurs.
“It’s like a treehouse. Your dad ever built you one?” – Alan Grant rescuing Tim after their jeep falls over a cliff edge and lands in a tree.
By the end of the film, Ellie and Alan are surrogate parents holding and leading the children to the helicopter to escape the island. The message is clear that their survival is based on the group of characters working together as a nuclear family; with Alan showing his paternal leadership, he puts his arm around the now elderly-appearing Hammond and guides him to safety.
Scientific progression with cloning and manipulating genetics is shown as threatening the natural and traditional family. Like the Republican anxiety about marriage and abortion, Jurassic Park tells us there is safety in tradition.
Without the political agenda, it is hard to deny that Jurassic Park’s attraction was the visual effects. The CGI was an iconic development in Hollywood’s film production. Hence, the original film trailer avoided displaying the CGI dinosaurs to lure film lovers into seeing the cinema’s pioneering technology.
The fascination, adoration, and apprehension created in Jurassic Park are a homage to the monster film. By limiting big spectacular displays of the monster, the audience’s imagination is left to fill in the gaps. The dark setting and stormy weather in the film plays into this as Spielberg purposefully uses partial, close-up shots or shadows of the dinosaurs to build suspense. In fact, by using clever camera angles and lighting, the film only had 14 minutes of visual effects – only four of those minutes were the iconic CGI we remember Jurassic Park for today.
Spielberg captured the public’s attention and left them hungry for more by withholding the spectacular visual display of the dinosaurs.
If there is one thing Jurassic Park satirises, it is our capitalist desire to commodify anything new and exciting. Unfortunately, a lot of the time, it is at the expense of the consumer. Ian Malcolm outlines this problem after Hammond explains his idea to make a dinosaur-themed park:
“Yeah, but John, if Pirates of the breaks down, the pirates don’t eat the tourists.” – Ian Malcolm, Jurassic Park
The irony being Universal Studios building a water ride simulating the fear and adrenaline rush of being attacked by dinosaurs. This year also welcomes a new Velociraptor rollercoaster ride paying homage to the success of ‘Jurassic World’. It is an inescapable thought that experiencing a dinosaur-filled theme park is (and dare I say it?) sexy.
The commodification of Jurassic Park is the final reason why the film has captured so many people’s hearts. The initial VHS release came with a special edition gift set of a DNA carry case, an educational book on dinosaurs, an InGen security pass, 3D hologram watch and map of Isla Nublar. The gift set toys with the theory of dinosaur cloning being plausible as it mixes the factual with fiction.
“…before you even know what you had, you patented it, and packaged it, and slapped it on a lunch box” – Ian Malcolm speaking about the dangers on capitalising on dinosaurs.
The risk, wonder, and adventure: Spielberg’s film captivates us by showing a world we could never live in. The VHS to DVD releases combined with playful commodities has placed Jurassic Park into a staple part of Western film culture. Furthermore, its innovative visual effects and theorisation around the dangers of creating dinosaurs with a capitalist agenda cultivate a world in which Jurassic Park could exist.
Have you found your collection of Jurassic Park VHS tapes at home? At Digital Converters, we can convert your tapes to digital formats. Follow the link here.
It is evident everywhere humans go we pine for times long past and places long forgotten. Whether it is watching your favourite Disney films again on a rainy evening or running your fingers along the torn edges of your favourite book – we all love that hit of nostalgia.
This, of course, extends to music too. (And I’m not just talking about blasting your old Robbie Williams CD in the car). Sometimes the medium takes a back seat to the sound waves themselves. A lot of our favourite music being produced today uses sounds and techniques plucked straight from legendary recording studios of the 1980’s and ignites that same nostalgia.
From global acts, such as The Weeknd and The 1975, to critically-acclaimed indie darlings like Tame Impala, a huge slew of artists are aiming to encapsulate the sounds of the past. Whether this be the 70’s, 80’s, or other sounds which capture the essence of a world different to our own today.
Here are two techniques used in music today which encapsulates that retro nostalgia which music fans love:
The drum sound of the 80’s is something unmistakeable: huge cymbals and punchy snare drums. Just listen to the drums tail off after each thwack on Phil Collins’ monumental hit “In the Air Tonight” and you’ll hear the quintessential 80’s drum sound executed to a tee. Usually, the sound of a record in the studio is something which is meticulously planned by the artist or producer, but this drum sound (which came to define the 80’s pop music scene) was something of a happy accident.
A year before this smash record was released, Phil Collins had developed his own technique of drum recording with his former bandmate, Peter Gabriel. While recording in The Townhouse Studio in London, Gabriel recruited Collins to play the drums on his breakthrough third solo album ‘Melt’. In the studio, Collins’ drums were picked up by the overhead microphone used by the engineers to speak with the band.
This microphone was not designed to record instruments, and as such was set up differently to recording microphones. The most notable difference was that this studio microphone included a noise gate and a compressor. Essentially, this means that the microphone amplified quiet sounds, turned down loud noises, and tuned into sounds when it hit a certain volume. It was designed to stop picking up sounds when they dropped below a certain threshold.
While recording Collins’ drums, the studio microphone caused a massive, cacophonous sound that was abruptly cut off after no more than a second. Hugh Padgham, one of the music producers, explained it best as “going from all to nothing in milliseconds”. This drum sound became a staple of Phil Collins’ music, as well as the music of many other 80’s superstars.
This drum recording technique is still used today! Lorde, a pop artist from New Zealand, adorned her latest album with retro drum sounds sprinkled over brooding pop evolved from her first hit album, ‘Pure Heroine’. Meanwhile, MGMT have been long known for using retro sounds in their techno music. But this is best encapsulated in their 2018 album ‘Little Dark Age’ which amplifies that typical 80’s rock drum snare.
As technology evolved, synthesizers became integral to the sound that would largely dominate popular music for the past 50 years. This change in music began in the 1960’s swirling cauldron of countercultural attitudes, distorted guitars, and exciting new tech. Psychedelic Rock was birthed. Bands, such as Pink Floyd and The Doors, were early synth pioneers and set a lot of the groundwork that many popular artists have built upon today.
Speaking on the synergy between rock and electronic music developed in the 1960s, Louis Marcheschi said:
“Rock and Roll is electronic music – because if you pull the plug, it stops”.
This is largely due to the reliance on electronic effect pedals to achieve the spacious, echoing sound of the 1960’s. The sound produced by the guitar itself is manipulated and repeated so much that without the electronic tech and synthesizers, the music would lack the depth and produced sound. This kind of effect-laden sound manifested itself in different ways throughout the popular music of the 80’s, 90’s and present-day music.
Bands such as Depeche Mode and The Pet Shop Boys took it through its first boom in the 80’s. The torch was then handed over to Lightning Seeds who scored two UK Number One Singles – one of which being England’s Football Anthem “Three Lions” released in 1996. However, the best modern-day practitioner of the “Synth Pop” sound is likely Tame Impala, who have created two albums in the last 6 years which have been in the Top 10 UK Album charts. Most recent of which is their 2020 album ‘The Slow Rush’.
As it stands, these retro revivalists are here to stay, and they bring a great soundtrack.
Have you got a collection of Psychedelic Rock cassettes that you want to revive? Digital Converters brings your most loved music back to life by transferring your audio cassettes to CD, memory sticks or onto a cloud download.
Follow this link to start future-proofing your favourite audio now!